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KCSE REVISION QUESTION AND ANSWERS PAST PAPERS

 

 

 

 

211/2

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 2

2 1/2 Hours

 

SECTION A(25 marks)

 

Name two electronic sources of information on history and government.

(i)                  Radio

(ii)                Television

(iii)               Microfilm / microfiches

(iv)              Audio visual sources

(v)                Databanks & data bases/internet

                                                               

Identify two method of dating fossils

(i)                  Geological periods

(ii)                Chemical dating e.g. Radio carbon & potassium argon

(iii)               Stratography

(iv)              Fission track dating

(v)                Lexicon statistics dating

(vi)              Statistical dating

                                                             

Give two cultural practices of Homo sapiens.

(i)                  Food preservation through pots, fire, and baskets

(ii)                Sedentary life/built permanent shelter

(iii)               Art e.g. rock painting and body decoration

(iv)              Religious beliefs/burials were conducted.

 

What two aspects of agriculture can African countries borrow from North America

(i)                  Regional specialisation according to climate and soils

(ii)                Application of fertilizer

(iii)               Farm mechanisation

(iv)              Improved infrastructure

(v)                Enhanced scientific & research

(vi)              Large scale/plantation agriculture

(vii)             Use of hybrid seeds/exotic breeds

(viii)           Proper food preservation e.g. use of refrigeration.

                                                                                  

Give one limitations of barter as a method of trade.

(i)                  Lack of double coincidence of wants

(ii)                Perishability

(iii)               Some products are indivisible

(iv)              Bulky goods are not easy to transport

(v)                Language barrier

(vi)              Difficult to determine the exchange rate.

                                                           

 

dentify the main source of industry energy

-         Petroleum/oil

   

Give two functions of the Buganda traditional parliament

(i)                  Made laws

(ii)                Advised the Kabaka

(iii)               Directed collection of taxes

(iv)              Planned expenditure

(v)                Represented peoples concerns &

(vi)              Settled disputes in their areas.

(vii)             Acted as the final courts to try cases under them

                                                                    

 

State two factors that led to the development of Kilwa into a town.

(i)                  Security/protected island

(ii)                Existence of Indian ocean

(iii)               Presence of land & luxurious pallaces

(iv)              The greaming building like the great mosques

(v)                Control of gold trade.

                                                                                     

Identify two ways in which the invention of the wheel promoted early transport.

(i)                  Eased transportation of heavy loads

(ii)                Facilitated speedy transportation of people and goods

(iii)               Enhanced movement of solders during battles led to development of roads

(iv)              Facilitated transportation of goods over long distances.

(v)                Mode travelling more comfortable

                                                                                                         

 

Identify one advantage of drum beating as a form of communication over the use of smoke signals in Africa during the pre-colonial period.

(i)                  Drum beating could be used any time day or night, smoke signals can only be used during the day.

(ii)                Drum beats relayed specific messages while smoke relayed general messages.

(iii)               Drum beats can be heard even if one is not on the look out. Smoke signals one must be on the look out to see it.

(iv)              Drum beats spread messages faster than smoke.

(v)                Drum beats can be used during all seasons while smoke can not be used during all seasons e.g. can’t be used during cloudy or misty weather.

 

                                                                                         

What was the contribution of Alexander Graham Bell in communication.

He invented the telephone                

 

Name the territories acquired by Germany from France during the Franco-Prussian war of 1870 –1871.

(i)                  Lorraine

(ii)                Alsace

                                                                            

Mention the role of religion in Chimurenga uprising

(i)                  Source of unity

(ii)                Enhance morale/confident

 

Other than assimilation another French administrative policy in Africa.

(i)                  Association

                                                                

Name two sources of the Britain’s unwritten constitution

(i)                  Statutes (acts of parliament)

(ii)                Customs

(iii)               Precedence (case laws)

(iv)              Judicial decisions

(v)                Historical documents e.g. magma

                                                      

State the main function of the International court of justice

(i)                  To settle international disputes e.g. over boundaries, treatment of diplomatic consular officers, fishing regulations etc.

 

SECTON B (45 MARKS)

 

a) Outline five ways in which the Tuaregs contributed to the development of Trans-Saharan trade.

(i)                  Guided traders through the desert.

(ii)                Provide security to the caravans

(iii)               Took care of the oasis

(iv)              Acted as interpreters to the traders

(v)                Arranged for provision of water and accommodation

                                                                                 

b) Explain five ways in which the Trans-Saharan trade led to the development of kingdoms in western Sudan.

(i)                  Source of state revenue through import and export taxes paid by traders.

(ii)                Kings acquired horses & fire arms which they used to establish strong armies to defend & expand the kingdoms.

(iii)               Islam acted as a unifying factor

(iv)              Islamic sheria which was introduced by traders was used in administration of the kingdoms.

(v)                The kings were able to acquire personal wealth which helped them command respect and to reward their royal subject.

(vi)              The trade stimulated local trade which generated state wealth.

(vii)             Muslim personnel were used by kings as advisors & secretariat, which led to effective administration.

(viii)           The trade motivated the kings to establish diplomatic links with North Africa and countries of the Middle East.

(ix)              The trade motivated the kings to acquire more territories so that they could acquire the benefits.

 

                                                                                   

 

a) Mention three early written forms of communication.

(i)                  Pictures

(ii)                Stone tablets/clay tablets

(iii)               Patchments

(iv)              Scrolls

 

                                                                          

b) Discuss ways through which the modern society has benefited from the development in

telecommunication.

(i)                  It has facilitated commercial transactions between countries & individuals. Through use of fax and telephone.

(ii)                Provide employment

(iii)               Promote space research through satellite communication

(iv)              It is used in modern warfare to provide information to the parties involved in the war.

(v)                Education – telecom serves as medium for public education.

(vi)              Mass entertainment e.g. through T.V radio, Cinema etc.

(vii)             Has helped to improve travel by air & water

(viii)           National unity and patriotism i.e.

(ix)              Has promoted fast transmission of ideas

(x)                Facilitated storage of information  through use of computer.

(xi)              Has enabled organisations and individuals access information at their own convenience.

                                                                                              

a) Give three economic factors which contributed to the growth of Ashante in the precolonial period.

(i)                  Trading activities i.e. trade in gold

(ii)                Agricultural activities e.g. cultivation of kola nuts

(iii)               Mining of gold.

(iv)              Hunting i.e obtained ivory from forest kingdoms.

(v)                Taxes collected from merchants

(vi)              Revenue collected from the provincial states (Vassal states)

                                                        

 

b) Describe the political organisation of the Shona in the 19th Century.

(i)                  The kingdom was ruled by a king/emperor who was both head of state and government.

(ii)                Kingship was hereditary

(iii)               King was the chief priest/semi divine.

(iv)              King was commander in chief of the army

(v)                The king was assisted in administration by the queen  mother, head drummer, kings sisters, kings principal wives, & military commander, chief cook, & gate keeper.

(vi)              The empire was divided into provincials led by lesser kings who were directly answerable to the emperor.

(vii)             The kingdom had a standing army for defence & expansion.

(viii)           Religion created political unity in the kingdom.

(ix)              Priests acted as a link between people & the emperor.

(x)                Conquered/vassal states wee ruled by lesser chiefs who paid tribute to the king.

(xi)              The emperor controlled trading activities whose revenue was used to sustain the empire and the army.

                                                                           

a) Name three communes in Senegal where the French system of assimilation was successfully applied.

(i)                  Rufisque

(ii)                Dakar

(iii)               St Louis

(iv)              Goree

                                                                                  

b) Explain six factors which undermined the application of the French policy of assimilation in West Africa.

(i)                  Opposition by the local people who did not want the French to interfere with their culture.

(ii)                Traditional African rulers never wanted to lose their authority and influence over their people.

(iii)               People who had been converted to Islam resisted the French attempts to convert to Christianity.

(iv)              The African land tenure system was different from that of French.

(v)                Opposition from French traders in W. Africa who saw assimilated Africans as a threat to their commercial monopoly.

(vi)              The French government found it expensive to implement as it required building many schools and employing many teachers.

(vii)             It threatened the existence of the French empire

(viii)           It was opposed by the French imperialists.

(ix)              The vastness of the  French colonies made it difficult to supervise the implementation of the policy due to inadequate personnel.

(x)                French people feared they might be outnumbered in the chamber of deputies and laws would be made by representations in the colonies.

                                                                              

 

SECTION C |(30 MARKS)

 

a)  Why was Pan-African movement not active in Africa until 1945.

(i)                  Africans in the movement were few and were living outside Africa as exiles or students.

(ii)                Colonial authority could not allow Africans organise a movement.

(iii)               Divide and rule policy used by the Europeans made it impossible for the Africans to co-operate or unity

(iv)              Africans were concerned with issues effecting them directly e.g. land alienation & taxation.

(v)                Countries that were independent had their own internal problems and paid little attention to international matters.

(vi)              Lack of funds to mobilize Africans .

(vii)             Lack of adequate means to communicate ideas across the continent as they were controlled by the Europeans.

                                                                      

 

b) Explain the challenges that have faced the common market of Eastern and

 Southern Africa (COMESA) since its inception.

(i)                  Lack of funds

(ii)                Personality differences especially between Bashir of sudan and Museveni of Uganda

(iii)               Poverty among member states

(iv)              Poor means of transport.

(v)                Competition from other nations

(vi)              Divided loyalty i.e COMESA members are also members of other organisations.

(vii)             Civil wars among members states/political instability.

(viii)           Boarder conflicts among members.

(ix)              Members withdrawal at will

(x)                Lack of a common currency

(xi)              Economic disparity among member state/unequal distribution of trade benefits.

                                                                               

           

a) State five features or characteristics of the cold war.

(i)                  No actual military confrontation between U.S.A & former U.S.S.R.

(ii)                No lives were lost in U.S.A. or U.S.S.R as a result of cold war.

(iii)               No destruction of property occurred in USA & USSR

(iv)              Hatred & suspicion increased between eastern bloc and western bloc.

(v)                Manufacture and testing of deadly weapon increased.

(vi)              Stiff technological competition between USA and USSR.

(vii)             U.S.A and U.S.S.R feared each other.

                                              

 

b) What were the effects of cold war on international relations. (10 marks)

(i)                  It undermined international peace and security.

(ii)                It led to the development in science and technology.

(iii)               It led to spread of capitalist and communist ideologies.

(iv)              It led to the formation of economic and military alliances like COMECON and E.E.U, NATO & WARSAW PACT  .

(v)                Cold war led to the formation of N.A.M a neutral policy approach

(vi)              In reaction to power bloc rivalry the developing nations forged Afro Asia bloc to exert their influence in the U.N

(vii)             The hostility between the powers led to a series of crises e.g. Korea and Vietnam wars, Congo crisis.

(viii)           Created mistrust and suspicion dividing the world into two blocs.

(ix)              It led to the division of some states e.g. Germany (East and West Germany) Korea(South & North korea) e.t.c

(x)                It led to rise of dictatous e.g. Bokassa (Central African republic), Mobutu Seseseko (Congo) Idi Amin (Uganda).

                                                  

       

a) Give 5 ways in which the powers of the president are checked in the United states of America.

(i)                  Congress checks the powers of the president e.g. the people appointed by the president must be approved by the senate.

(ii)                Congress can refuse to approve the use of government funds for a foreign policy it disagrees with e.g. war.

(iii)               Congress can impeach a sitting president if his conduct in his office is not satisfactory.

(iv)              The supreme court can declare a president to have acted unconstitutionally

(v)                The constitution limits any individual to 2 –4 years term as a president.

(vi)              The mass media have acted as a major check on presidential powers. The president’s every action or speech is closely monitored by the media.

(vii)             Pressure groups also help to check presidential actions.

(viii)           Public opinion plays a vital role in limiting the president’s actions.

                                                                                          

 

b) Explain the advantages of the federal system of government in U.S.A

(i)                  Makes it possible for a number of states to work as one political unit.

(ii)                It enables member states to solve common problems together.

(iii)               It ensures that the interests of smaller states are protected.

(iv)              It enables people of different states to meet and interact.

(v)                Member states benefit from the common pool of resources.

(vi)              It establishes common grievances.

(vii)             It promotes trade within the federation by eliminating problem of custom duties & boundaries.

(viii)           It ensures that the federal government does not over use its powers.

(ix)              States are able to tackle common problems together.

(x)                Existence of a joint defence force ensures security for small states.

(xi)              Protects the interests of smaller states.

                                                                                  

 

KCSE REVISION QUESTION AND ANSWERS PAST PAPERS

 

 

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